There is a national screening programme for Cancers of the Cervix, Breast and Bowel. There is also a screening programme for Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms.
These programmes use GP registration data to send out invitations, but the programmes are not run by practices. Practices provide cervical cytology (for the cervical cancer programme), but do not provide services for the other screening programmes.
For more information, see http://www.cancerscreening.nhs.uk/
There is no programme as such for Prostate Cancer screening, but those who wish to request PSA testing may do so by making appointment with a GP. It is controversial how useful prostate screening might be.
Those over 40 years old are encouraged to have a check of their risk factors for heart disease, at least once every five years, or more often if there is particular concern. This check can be booked with the practice nurse.